Archive for the ‘SEALs’ Category

LEADERSHIP IN THE LEANING REST #9 – ROBERT NEEDHAM (NAVY SEAL) ON TEAM LEADERSHIP   Leave a comment

Today I would like to continue sharing with you more of my highlights and notes from Team Secrets of the Navy SEALs by Robert Needham (Navy SEAL).

Chapter 1 – Leading the Best (cont.)

1. “If an individual or a Team starts to lose focus, they must step back and review.” — Sometimes individuals or teams feel that they do not have time to step back and refocus. Of course, if you ask if they have more or less time to lose focus, go for a walk in the woods, fail and get miserable, re-focus time doesn’t look as costly as the alternative. That said, I’ve seen people and teams get into “locked up” mode and require a wake-up call to snap out of it.

2. “It is incumbent upon any group that desires true success to set an environment that allows and encourages communication.” I used to pride myself on being a submarine commander when it comes to communication: “If you don’t hear from me, everything is OK.” With time, I have really come to think that all things are possible with good communication. Just the social support provided in communicatin improves the resilience and chances of survival and success of people in tough situations. As I have heard so often said (to me) before: “Communicate, communicate, communicate.”

3. “You must honestly evaluate your own ability and communicate forthrightly about it — for your own good and for that of the Team. If everyone else is unaware of a weak link, they cannot repair it. Unnoticed, the weak link will break, costing money, time, and perhaps even lives.” — Thee’s a strategy called “Fake it ’til you make it!” for self-improvement, which involves acting like the person you want to be in order to become that person. It’s an effective approach. At the same time, trying to “fake out” others by posing or lying about knowledge or ability is misguided and a clear commitment to making disaster happen for self and others. The bigger person on a Team knows to be clear about limits, risks, and look for reality-checks and options from others.

4. “Wat’s important to the SEAL TEAm is important to any team of professionals inbusiness: Stay informed, stay alert, and stay alive.” — Yep!

5. “It is imperative that you stress [to your team] that no issue will be addressed unless the author also includes a viable solution.” — Major General Ronald Bailey (USMC) imposes the same requirement onhis team. You don’t get to complain or bring up a problem without a number of possible solutions. This makes sense if you want to see firsthand descriptions of problems always accompanied by firsthand proposals for solutions. If you’re not there, you really end up counting on the person who is closest to the problem to ascertain a best probable solution. Makes sense!

6. “Challenge yur team to think outside the box, brainstorm, and create. Give them the responsibility and the latitude to be creative.” — Innovation, adaptation and improvement require creativity. It is an invaluable resource asset for any team. Take care of it!

7. “If you can find humor in a bad situation and joke about it, you will have a better chance of salvaging your attitude and coming out on top.” — Humor puts things in perspective, and opens up space for creative thinking and problem-solving. In addition, laughter activates physiological processes that reduce stress and the distracting, demoralizing and fatiguing effects of stress. Use humor like a medicine and a weapon!

I am preparing engaging leadership development modules, including practical exercises, for individuals and teams. If you or your team is interested in engaging with leadership development in a practical and meaningful work session, let me – Tom Delaney – know via e-mail to greatriverfitness@gmail.com. We’ll put it together and make it happen!

DAVID GOGGINS (NAVY SEAL) HITS PULL-UP LIMIT   Leave a comment

This just in from Special Operations Warrior Foundation, reporting on David Goggins’ (Navy SEAL) quest to set a new world record for pull-ups and raise awareness for the SpecialOperations Warrior Foundation:

Endurance athlete and motivational speaker DavidGoggins began his quest to break the Guinness World Record of 4,020 pull-ups in 24 hrs. in the @todayshow studio just after 8 am on Sept. 27th.

After 6 hours and 30 minutes in, David had completed 2011 pullups (halfway to the record). By 9:15 pm, after 13.5 hours David completed pull-up 2588. He had been in considerable pain for hours as a severe bulge burst through the skin of his right wrist. A medical x-ray at 10:30pm confirmed a right extensor polycis complex partial tear. Basically, the tear rendered his thumb and wrist useless and he was no longer able to grip the bar. The pull-up bar David used for the Guinness challenge was poorly designed. David used a totally different bar during the months of training prior to this event. He didn’t realize how poorly constructed it was and what a difference it would make in his attempt. As the bar weakened, he was dealing with a lot of sway, a left to r…ight movement, which worsened as time went on. David’s crew tried to come up with solutions such as bracing the bar on either side to stabilize it, but were unable to do so. This is what caused the most problems as David lost a lot of energy trying to pull up on an unstable bar. He had to tighten his grip considerably because the bar was moving so much, and he believes this is what caused the forearm injury.

The numbers: David did 2,588 pull-ups in 566 TOTAL sets. That’s 4.6 pull-ups PER set.

David did 216 sets on the minute before taking his first break longer than 60 seconds (12:02 pm).

David did 2.9 pull-ups EVERY minute for 15 hours when he officially ended. That’s INCLUDING the 3 hours at the end, when he did ZERO..

David did AT LEAST 6 pull-ups in his first 111 sets.

David got to 1,000 pull-ups in 2 hrs 48 minutes and 2,000 pull-ups in 3 hrs 34 minutes.

Most importantly, David helped raise awareness and thousands of dollars for the Special Operations Warrior Foundation @SOWF, which provides full college scholarships to the children off fallen military warriors, and you can still donate by going to specialops.org or shownoweakness.com.

As David says, “You can fail, as long as you get back up again. I’ve failed plenty of times, but I just keep going. I’m just an ordinary man. I’m David Goggins, a guy who never gives up, who believes that any man or woman can push beyond their own limits with the right combination of will, focus, determination and discipline.”

Mission accomplished.

ROPE COIL & CARRY   Leave a comment

Knot tying is an important skill for everything from outdoor sports and spec ops to moving grandma’s mattress on the roof of your car. One of my personal goals is to revisit and improve my knot tying skills by reviewing the examples in Basic Seamanship, which you can also review HERE. ITS Tactical has been running a very good “Knot of the Week” series for a couple of years and this week’s feature covers how to coil and carry rope for climbing or rappelling.

LEADERSHIP IN THE LEANING REST #5: “SOMETHING BIGGER THAN MYSELF”   Leave a comment

“I want to serve something bigger than myself,” is a phrase you will hear from people as the reason why they chose a commitment of service to others and to the nation, even when and especially when that choice involves sacrfice and acceptance of personal risk. I heard this phrase from Marines in the Assault Amphibious School Battalion (MCRD – San Diego) as the reason why they chose the Marine Corps. Robert Needham (Navy SEAL) describes commitment to a cause larger than self as a defining characteristic of SEAL Team members. The conception of a cause bigger than myself, and the determination of a conscious resolve to that cause, and the commitment to take direction in my life from that cause, is an important aspect of leadership development.

My experience in working with people has been that this kind of resolve and commitment is often not easy to arrive at. Two obstacles can happen. First, is the personal statement “I don’t believe things like higher causes and things bigger than myself are real.” Second is the personal statement on the other side, “I believe in things like higher causes and things bigger than myself, but I’m not important or cut out for that stuff.”

The first person is a risky person to have on a team because when things are at their absolute worst and only a belief in a higher cause will compel that person to do what they need to do for the team, that person cannot be counted on to come through for the team because they do not feel compelled by the cause. However, I don’t write off people like that. I invite people like that to get an open mind and experiment with the idea that there are higher causes and things bigger than him or her. Try it out and see how it works for you and others. “I don’t believe in something bigger than myself, but if i did, I guess I would …” OK, that’s a start! My experience has been that a lot of people will start out reluctant but will come around after experiencing life with a belief in a higher cause and something bigger than her or him. All of the sudden life has more meaning, and the person has a more noble identity and higher esteem for self and from others. It positively creates an aura and palpable energy around the person! Some people call this process “drinking the kool-aid” in reference to a cult tragedy back in the 70’s…but in this case we’re talking about drinking something that reveals and empowers.

The second person is also risky to have one a team because when things are at their absolute worst and only a belief in a higher cause will compel that person to do what they need to do for the team they will not feel they are the “chosen one” or up to the job. Like the first person, I don’t write off these people either. The problem is that this person has a preconceived notion about what a champion or hero looks like and has decided they don’t fit the bill, or grew up with people telling her or him that they don’t have the stuff of courage and heroism in them. This is of course negative self-talk and literally not true anyway. Peruse photos and biographies of heroes and you’ll see that they come in all shapes, sizes, races, backgrounds, etc. There are the big and burly classic looking heroes, and there are just as many wiry looking bad asses out there as well. Body type, gender, race — none of that selects the solid teammate or hero. Fateful matches between hard circumstance and even harder personal commitment makes heroism happen. Right away I think of Dick Couch writing how it isn’t the big burly guys who make it through BUD/S reliably. Watch the true story of Carl Brashear in the film Men of Honor, an African-American who rose out of poverty and racism to become a hero. Look at photos and read about the Night Witches of the 46th Taman Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment who flew decrepit biplanes against the German Army in World War II. There are many examples and it all goes to show that there is no formulaic hero or champion — it’s only about personal commitment and the brains to follow through on it. So to any person who thinks they’re too small for something bigger than him or herself, I invite that type of person to start dismantling their preconceived notions of what the higher cause and the hero looks like. They need to start looking into the mirror and considering the possibility that there’s a champion and a hero looking back at them, if they just commit to it being so.

OK, so that’s plenty of advice on how to work with people in either of those two circumstances. Where did it come from? It comes from my own personal experience of having been both of those people. Days when I didn’t have time for higher causes and things bigger than myself. Days when I thought “I’m too skinny” and then days when I thought “I’m too fat” to be of any use to a higher cause. Been there, done that. Worked through it all and now I stand on the other end and can give anyone the facts. All of this is to say that the best advice for others is once again usually the best advice for myself as well, and to never lose track of that. I can’t just state an example for others to follow, I gotta live it.

If you or your team want to engage more deeply and meaningfully with this aspect of leadership development, let me – Tom Delaney – know by sending an e-mail to greatriverfitness@gmail.com, and I will be able to share with you workshop formats and complete a planning process with you. We’ll make it happen!

Tran hard, never quit, live well!

Tom Delaney

LEADERSHIP IN THE LEANING REST #4 – ROBERT NEEDHAM (NAVY SEAL) BOOK NOTES   Leave a comment

Today I would like to share with you more of my highlights and notes from Team Secrets of the Navy SEALs by Robert Needham (Navy SEAL). I finished this book last night and have to say that amongst all the flotsam and jetsam of leadership literature, this little $6 book was a real treasure to find! Best book on leadership and organizational theory I have ever read — and I’m a guy who has dropped a lot of money on leadership courses. In hsraing these notes with you, I hope to share some of the wisdom and save you a lot of wasted effort and money as well! Here goes…

Chapter 1 – Leading the Best (cont.)

“Never underestimate the value of a fresh , innovative and perhaps even abstract point of view. Diversity is good and can strengthen the Team.” — A team with no diversity has less potential ability for adaptation when the inevitable challenges arise. In addition, I read this and thought of the value of keeping my own thinking fresh, innovative and abstract. It helps me stay mentally strong and adaptive. Yeah, I am a guy who reads a lot of “weird stuff” all the time and maintains a lot of interests in arts, cultures, history and literature. Because of this, I am able to look at situations and problems from multiple perspectives, assess multiple risks, and come up with multiple possible solutions. I also just get a lot more out of life.

“Even in failure, a tight Team can learn, adapt, train, and get itself back in the fight.” — It’s never how many times I or my team gets knocked down, it’s about how many times we I get back up. What separates a team that can get back i the fight from one that is down for the count is the ability of that team to learn. As long as I and my team are learning, we’re still in the fight. In addition, there’s value in mistakes as learning opportunities. I humorously remember watching Don Shipley (Navy SEAL) remark on one occasion “You don’t learn shit without failure” — he’s right! As many failures as I have had in my life, I am happy to say I learned a lot from them! I’m a pretty smart guy! 😉

“You are expected, as are the rest of the [Team] members, to be of the highest caliber. Hold yourself to these standards as you would anyone else…no excuses.” — High standards is a lifestyle choice. I either choose high standards or I don’t. In my view, the choice is not dependent on wealth, brains, convenience or anything like that. Anyone is capable of adopting high standards without those things. Adopting high standards depends upon me recognizing my own potential to meet high standards, and the fact that the world needs me to do so. I am expected to adopt high standards by those who depend upon me — my family especially, but also my co-workers and my community. I make the choice, and because I see the potential in others, and because I see the world needs people with high standards in order for things like justice and prosperity to happen, I do expect high standards from others.

“Each block or phase will follow the same basic pattern: Learn, apply, review, evaluate, reapply, reevaluate, and then set SOP’s (standard operating procedures).” — A defined process for learning. Needham also emphasizes the value of documenting and frequently reviewing “lessons learned” in a notebook or electronic file.

“When you are planning a mission or a roadmap to complete an assigned task, set points along the way to realign and refocus your efforts. Bring the Team together and ensure that you are indeed headed in the correct direction…periodic checkpoints will ensure you’re on track.” — Land navigation and orienteering is a very concrete way to learn and practice this principle. It is not enough for me to set a course for a destination at the outset based on the limited information I have. I need to set checkpoints to ensure that I establish and maintain a course toward my destination that minimizes risk to acceptable levels. Project management and life itself functions the same way. Get your map, get your compass, AND be prepared to adjust and adapt!

I am preparing engaging leadership development modules, including practical exercises, for individuals and teams. If you or your team is interested in engaging with leadership development in a practical and meaningful work session, let me – Tom Delaney – know via e-mail to greatriverfitness@gmail.com. We’ll put it together and make it happen!

LEADERSHIP IN THE LEANING REST #1 (NEW GRTFC SERIES)   Leave a comment

Today is a rest day in my current training program, and rest days are good days to re-focus on goals and reflect especially on developing leadership competence and character. I am reading an outstanding book entitled Team Secrets of the Navy SEALs by Robert Needham. Needham is a currently active Navy SEAL. I have a feeling that the publishers picked the long wordy esoteric sounding title, not Needham, because this is a very straightforward text on leadership in the context of high performing teams.

There is so much good info in this text that summarizing it would never capture it all sufficiently. My plan is to share my highlights and notes with you chapter by chapter. You’ll get some main points, and if you figure out you want the full story you can go out and hunt down a copy. Team leadership development is a core component of the Great River Tactical Fitness Center (GRTFC) training model. If you want more information or want to get yourself or your team engaged, contact me – Tom Delaney – at greatriverfitness@gmail.com.

Here is the first installment of my highlights and notes. In the text below, sections of text from Needham’s book are in quotes, and my notes follow. Write this stuff down. Think about it. Apply it in your own situation. Keep what works and throw the rest away! Adapt, adapt, adapt …

Chapter 1 – Leading the Best (Part 1)

“Every moment of a SEAL’s life is geared toward the development, education, and honing of the Team! The word ‘Team’ encompasses everything from the sixteen-man platoon to our entire country and way of life.” –See my previous post on Navy SEAL Ethos and consider the term “team” as referring to your friends and family, as well as the implications.

“You can’t think only of yourself and those factors affecting or stressing your life. Everyone’s life depends on each member thinking as one. The ‘poor me’ attitude is poison and is a mjor hurdle in any group dynamic.” – What I observe most often with the mentality that blames others for problems, is that it serves as a false excuse from taking responsibility. A person who wallows in self-pity and blames others for their problems will have a hard time taking charge of making positive change in their life, and repositioning themselves to be a support to others.

“If you have been assigned a task, you had better seriously evaluate your ability to complete it before accepting it…carefully assess the situations at hand and take on any challenge you feel that, through the combined effort of you and your Team, you will be able to accomplish.” – This places probability of success as the decisive factor. Not probability of fame, favor or fortune.

“Remember that once you have committed, you are in. If you suddenly find that you’re in over your head, you had better sprout gils and come up with a way to complete the task properly. …If you need to reset, do so after careful consideration of the consequences and after developing other possible solutions.” — I’ve talked about this quote in a previous post, in terms of technical versus adaptive problems and leadership. The ability to adapt is a core competency for team leadership, because the fundamental nature of reality is one of constant change. Failure to adapt inevitably leads to a failure to survive and thrive. On a deeper level, the ability to adapt is also linked to a leadership character trait of openness to change. Even better, a leadership attitude of expecting a necessity for change, and actively seeking out the advantageous opportunities for positive change. If you live your life expecting to regularly review your beliefs, views, attitudes and modes of living, and subsequently identifying and eliminating the unrealistic and outdated of these, you will be living well.

“Team Concepts for the Individual: Never Quit!” – Enough said!

“You are only as strong as your weakest team member.” – I look at this as a reminder to be realistic in goal setting and planning for contingencies. Overconfidence can result in worse problems than a plan was originally designed to solve. ON an individual level, if you look at your own body as your team, the implication is a caution against thinking that your strengths will compensate for your weaknesses or injuries. You have to address those weaknesses or injuries in your personal plan, whether they be underdeveloped muscle groups, your weight, or an unhealthy habit.

“Surround yourself with ‘operators,’ those who perform, always being mindful of the difference between the person you just like to have around and the one you and your Team need to succeed.” – There are obvious work implications, but on a personal level, the implication is that it is very important to surround yourself with people who actively share common commitments with you. There are plenty of fun people in this world, they’re good people, and they are liked. However, if you have set a difficult goal, are training hard to achieve it, are engaging with physical and psychological obstacles in a very involved and intense way, you need “operators” with you, not “good time people.” Sometimes you can get lucky and have an operator who is also a good time friend! But – AND THIS IS IMPORTANT – if you need to make a choice…go with the operator every time.

… stay tuned for more in this Leadership in the Leaning Rest series I am running. Train hard, never quit, live well! – Tom

NAVY SEAL ETHOS – LIVE IT!   Leave a comment

Take a look! YOU can adopt and live out many of the most important parts of the U.S. Navy SEAL Ethos, starting today!

1. “The ability to control my emotions and my actions, regardless of circumstance, sets me apart from other men. Uncompromising integrity is my standard. My character and honor are steadfast. My word is my bond.”

2. “I will never quit. I persevere and thrive on adversity.”

3. “If knocked down, I will get back up, every time. I will draw on every remaining ounce of strength to protect my teammates and to accomplish our mission. I am never out of the fight.”

4. “My training is never complete.”

5. “I will not fail.”

Train hard, never quit, live well!

NAVY SEAL ETHOS

In times of war or uncertainty there is a special breed of warrior ready to answer our Nation’s call. A common man with uncommon desire to succeed. Forged by adversity, he stands alongside America’s finest special operations forces to serve his country, the American people, and protect their way of life. I am that man.

My Trident is a symbol of honor and heritage. Bestowed upon me by the heroes that have gone before, it embodies the trust of those I have sworn to protect. By wearing the Trident I accept the responsibility of my chosen profession and way of life. It is a privilege that I must earn every day.

My loyalty to Country and Team is beyond reproach. I humbly serve as a guardian to my fellow Americans always ready to defend those who are unable to defend themselves. I do not advertise the nature of my work, nor seek recognition for my actions. I voluntarily accept the inherent hazards of my profession, placing the welfare and security of others before my own.

I serve with honor on and off the battlefield. The ability to control my emotions and my actions, regardless of circumstance, sets me apart from other men. Uncompromising integrity is my standard. My character and honor are steadfast. My word is my bond.

We expect to lead and be led. In the absence of orders I will take charge, lead my teammates and accomplish the mission. I lead by example in all situations.

I will never quit. I persevere and thrive on adversity. My Nation expects me to be physically harder and mentally stronger than my enemies. If knocked down, I will get back up, every time. I will draw on every remaining ounce of strength to protect my teammates and to accomplish our mission. I am never out of the fight.

We demand discipline. We expect innovation. The lives of my teammates and the success of our mission depend on me – my technical skill, tactical proficiency, and attention to detail. My training is never complete.

We train for war and fight to win. I stand ready to bring the full spectrum of combat power to bear in order to achieve my mission and the goals established by my country. The execution of my duties will be swift and violent when required yet guided by the very principles that I serve to defend.

Brave men have fought and died building the proud tradition and feared reputation that I am bound to uphold. In the worst of conditions, the legacy of my teammates steadies my resolve and silently guides my every deed. I will not fail.

STEW SMITH’S (NAVY SEAL) W.O.D. – SEPTEMBER 3   Leave a comment

Here’s what Stew Smith (Navy SEAL) got done today out east in Maryland with his group training to apply for spec ops training, etc.

A. Do in as few sets as possible:

*100 pullups
200 pushups
300 situps
–> alternate max reps sets of each exercise – keeping track each cycle of total reps – stop when you reach all the goal numbers – no rest other than sips of water / stretch
*use pulldowns or bench press when you fail at pullups / pushups..or crunches / plank if you fail at situps…

B. Repeat 6 times
1/4 mile at goal 1.5 mile pace
– in between 1/4s do one of the following:
-100yd bear crawl
– 100yd lunges
– 100yd burpee jumps
– 50yd fireman carry
100yd farmer walk with 40# in one hand
– 100yd crab walk

ENDURANCE-BUILDING TRAINING STRATEGIES   1 comment

Endurance is the ability to maintain work and physical exertion over extended periods of time. Endurance is a necessary capability for situations that are not resolvable in a finite episode or short period of time. In terms of physical fitness, endurance comes into play when, e.g.: long distances need to be run, swam and/or rowed; when physically engaging with an opponent multiple times or with multiple opponents, perhaps in the process of crossing long distances; or when an adverse physical, mental or environmental condition must be successfully met and overcome over an extended period of time. This last situation is a compelling reason why I advocate all-seasons outdoor training – it builds endurance. At the time that Dick Couch wrote The Warrior Elite the BUD/S candidates with the highest probability of passing BUD/S were coming from Minnesota. If you ask me, it’s because the weather here develops endurance in the people who live here in Minnesota. In my own training, I work on developing my endurance with multiuple training approaches: trail running, ruck running, interval sprinting and suspension training to name just a few. Recently Greatist author Laura Schwecherl wrote a very good summary article on strategies for developing endurance. She lists 7 strategies to consider that I wrote down as:

1. Rest Up
2. Eat Right
3. High Intensity Interval Training
4. Resistance Training
5. Favorite Music (Navy SEAL Stew Smith also recommended this.)
6. Train to Correct, Compensate or Cover Weaknesses & Vulnerabilities
7. Beet Juice (for real)

Take a look at the list and see if you’ve got your endurance training covered, or are there a couple of new strategies to consider for yourself. You can check out the full article HERE.

S.E.R.E. READING LIST   Leave a comment

My approach to tactical fitness training has four key components: physical fitness; land and riverine navigation; team leadership; and situational awareness. This is different from what you will encounter in many other tactical fitness programs which focus solely on physical training at the expense of developing mental fitness and leadership skills. My goal is to develop a trainee into a someone who can assume a leadership role in crisis situations, whether in the field or in the office. The physical dimension of training is matched with an equally important (if not more important) mental dimension of training. Being able-bodied is not enough! A leader must be able-minded in crisis situations, for her or himself, and especially when others are not and are counting on the leader for a survival or success strategy.

The United States Air Force’s Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape program recently publicized a reading list of the books most read and referred to by SERE Specialists. SERE Specialists train special operations teams on methods for surviving in a variety of wilderness environments with minimal (if any) equipment, how to evade capture, hot resist captors if taken prisoner, and how to escape captors. The mental challenge of these types of situations is off the scale. One Navy SEAL commented that BUD/S (SEAL training selection) was tough, but that there were experiences in SERE that he was glad he only had to get through once. All of this is to say that this reading list is HIGHLY VALUABLE INFORMATION, not only for anyone who aspires to a special operations career, but also to anyone who wants to cultivate the self-confidence, attitude and perspective required of a high performing team and its leader. Here is the list, I am placing two asterisks “**” next to the texts I have read and personally recommend! For more info, contact me, Tom Delaney (Tactical Fitness Trainer) at greatriverfitness@gmail.com!

SERE BOOK LIST
by RC DeLano

A. GENERAL

1. Be expert with Map & Compass, The Orienting Handbook** by Bjorn Kjellstrom. Joline Press, Any Edition.

2. Map Reading and Land Navigation, FM 21-26 (1987), FM 3-25.26, (2011)** by Headquarters Department of the Army.

3. The Basic Essentials of Map & Compass by Cliff Jacobson. ICS Books, Inc., 2007.

4. A Comprehensive Guide to Land Navigation on GPS by Noel J. Hotchkiss. Alexis Pub; 3rd edition, 1999

5. GPS Made Easy by Lawrence Letham. The Mountaineers Books, 2008.

6. AF Regulation 64-4, Vol 1, Search and Rescue Survival Tree by Department of the Air Force, 1985.

7. The SAS Survival Handbook** by John Wiseman. William Morrow Paperbacks, 2009.

8. Staying alive in the Arctic, A Cold weather Survival Manual by Frank Heyl. American Petroleum Institute. 1976.

9. How to stay Alive in the Woods by Bradford Angier. Collier-Macmillan LTD, Any Edition

10. Fieldbook, Boy Scouts of America** by Boy Scouts of America. Older versions discuss more primitive skills.

11. Tom Brown’s Field Guides: Wilderness Survival; Edible and Medicinal Plants; Nature &ampSurvival for Children; Nature Observation & Tracking. By Tom Brown. Berkley Publishing Group

12. High Angle Rescue Techniques, A Student guide for Rope Rescue Classes by Tom Vines and Steve Hudson, Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1992.

13. River Rescue by Les Bechdel and Slim Ray. Globe Pequot Press.

B. FLORA & FAUNA

1. Field Guide to Medicinal Plants by Bradford Angler. Stackpole Books, 1978.

2. Best-Tasting Wild Plants of Colorado and the Rockies by Bob Seebeck. Westcliffe Publishers, Inc., 1998.

3. Edible and Medicinal Plants of the Rocky Mountains and Neighboring Territories by Terry Willard Ph.D. Wild Rose College of Natural Healing, Ltd., 1992.

4. Plants of the Southern Interior, British Columbia by Ray Coupe, Roberta Parish, Dennis Lloyd. Lone Pine Publishing, 1996.

5. Deer from Field to Freezer by John & Geri McPherson. Ag Press, 1995

6. Step-by-Step, Brain Tanning the Sioux Way by Larry Belitz. Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, 1995.

7. Complete Guide to Game Animals by Leonard Lee Rue III. Grolier Book Clubs, Inc. 1981.

8. Catching More Freshwater Fish by Barney Rowe. Wellspring, 1993.

9. Tom Brown’s Field Guides, Wild Edible & Medicinal Plants: by Tom Brown. Berkley Publishing Group, 1983.

C. MEDICINE

1. Medicine for Mountaineering & Other Wilderness Activities by James A. Wilkerson, MD. The Mountaineers, 1992.

2. Wilderness Medicine, Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies by Paul S. Auerbach, MD, MS, FACEP. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1995.

3. Hypothermia, Frostbite and Other Cold Injuries by James A. Wilkerson, MD. The Mountaineers, 1986.

4. The Outward Bound, Wilderness First-Aid Handbook by Jeffrey Isaac, PA-C. Lyons Press, 1998.

5. Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured by American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. 7th Edition, 1999.